Computers Notes

What is Computer, Evolution of Computer, Classification of Computer and its Applications

This Notes includes What is Computer, Evolution of Computer, Classification of Computer and its
Applications

Introduction

A pc is an digital gadget that manipulates info or knowledge in response to the set of directions referred to as packagesIt has the flexibility to retailer, retrieve and course of knowledge. The time period ‘laptop’ is derived from the Latin phrase ‘computare’, which suggests ‘to calculate’. The essential features of a pc system are to just accept the enter, course of the enter, output and to retailer knowledge. 

What’s Computer?

Usually, Computer is the mixture of {hardware} and software program, which converts knowledge into info

Some phrases utilized in computer terminology are described beneath : 

  • Knowledge Unprocessed uncooked info and figures, like numbers, textual content on items of paper, are often known as knowledge. 
  • Processing It’s the sequence of actions taken on knowledge to transform it into info.
  • Info When knowledge is processed, organised, structured or offered in a given context in order to be helpful, then it’s referred to as info.
  • Instruction It’s a command given to a pc within the laptop language by the person.
  • Program It’s a set of directions given to a pc as a way to carry out some process.

 

Classification of Pc

Computer systems are primarily categorized primarily based on their completely different measurement and shapes :

 

Primarily based on Size

On the idea of measurement, computer systems are categorised as follows :

1. Micro Computer systems These are the least highly effective, but probably the most extensively used and quickest rising kind of computer systems and are additionally referred to as transportable computer systems. Some varieties of micro computer systems are given beneath :

I. Desktop Laptop or Private Laptop (PC) These computer systems are small and comparatively cheap
computer systems. These computer systems are primarily based on the microprocessor know-how (Built-in Circuit).

II. Pocket book These computer systems (also referred to as extremely guide or laptop computer) are transportable and light-weight. First laptop computer was developed by Alan Kay. Laptops devour much less energy than desktops and embody a chargeable battery.

III. Handheld Computer systems or Palmtops These computer systems are the smallest and are designed to suit into the palm. So, these computer systems are also referred to as Palmtop/PDA. They use the pen for enter as a substitute of keyboard.

2. Mini Computer systems These computer systems are smaller in measurement, quicker and value decrease than mainframe computer systems. Initially, the mini computer systems had been designed to hold out some particular duties, like engineering and
Laptop Aided Design (CAD) calculations. They’re used as central laptop, which is known as server.
e.g. IBM-17, DEC PDP-11, HP-9000, and so forth.

3. Mainframe Computer systems These are the computer systems having giant inner reminiscence storage and complete vary of softwares. These computer systems are greater in measurement comparatively to mini computer systems however smaller than supercomputers. Mainframe laptop serves as a spine for your complete enterprise world. e.g. IBM-370, IBM-S/390, UNIVAC-1110, and so forth.

4. Tremendous Computer systems These are the quickest and the most costly computer systems. The velocity of supercomputers is measured in FLOPS (Floating Level Operations Per Second). These are used for extremely
calculation intensive duties, corresponding to climate forecasting, nuclear analysis,enterprise software, navy companies and scientific analysis laboratories. ‘‘PARAM was the primary tremendous laptop of India launched by C-DAC in Pune.’’ As of January 2018, Pratyush is the quickest tremendous laptop in India.

Primarily based on Work

On the idea of labor, computer systems are categorised as follows : 

  1. Analog Computer systems These computer systems are the job oriented computer systems and work on the availability of steady electrical pulses. These computer systems perform arithmetic and logical operations by manipulating and processing of knowledge. e.g. speedometers, seismograph, and so forth.
  1. Digital Computer systems These computer systems work by calculating the binary digits. A digital laptop not solely performs mathematical issues, but additionally combines the bytes to provide desired graphics, sounds. e.g. desktop (PC). 
  2. Hybrid Computer systems These computer systems are the mixture of analog and digital computer systems. Machines utilized in hospitals like ECG (Electrocardiography) and DIALYSIS are the generally used hybrid computer systems. 

On the idea of goal, computer systems are categorised as follows : 

  1. Normal Objective Computer systems These computer systems are used to resolve number of issues by altering this system or directions, e.g. to make small database calculations, accounting, and so forth. 
  2. Particular Objective Computer systems These computer systems are used to resolve a single and devoted kind of issues, e.g. automated plane touchdown, multimedia laptop, and so forth.

Purposes of Computer

Now-a-days, computer systems have been employed in virtually all of the points {of professional} and private life. A number of the areas the place computer systems getting used are given beneath : 

  • Training Computer systems have proved to be glorious academics. Academic institutes are utilizing computer systems in some ways like tele-education, digital classroom, on-line lessons, and so forth. 
  • Enterprise Utility Computer systems play a significant function in enterprise to maintain information of workers, bought product info and out there sources are actually straightforward. 
  • Recreation and Leisure Computer systems may be discovered all through the leisure business. Computer systems are used to create the particular results in tv commercials, the colourful shows on the rating board at sport arenas and so forth. 
  • Authorities Varied departments of the federal government use laptop for his or her planning, controlling and regulation enforcement actions.
  • Well being Laptop performs a really essential function on this space. Actions like scanning, X-ray, tele-medicine, affected person monitoring, affected person information, prognosis, and so forth., are carried out with the assistance of computer systems.
  • Multimedia It’s the subject involved with the pc managed integration of texts, graphics, drawings, animation, audio and every other media, the place every kind of knowledge may be represented, saved, transmitted and processed digitally.
  • Banking Computer systems can be utilized within the banks to maintain the information of buyer’s accounts. Computer systems improve buyer companies like checking account standing, transferring cash, and so forth.

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