Computers Notes

What is Operating System and its type

Operating system is the system software program that performs all the fundamental duties of a pc system. It really works like an interface between the person and the pc {hardware} assets.It truly controls the execution of all of the duties which might be carried out in a pc.Some examples of operating systems are
Unix, MS-DOS, Windows 98/2000/XP.It permits a person to utilise {hardware} assets very effectively. So, operating system makes it simple for a person to make use of laptop system.“An operating system is a group of
packages that controls and coordinates all of the duties and capabilities in a pc system.It mediates between software packages and {hardware} elements.”


Fundamentals of Operating System

Operating system is the primary a part of the system software program of any laptop. It primarily offers an atmosphere to run the software program and serves companies to the pc {hardware}. Principally, working system has two aims : managing the pc’s {hardware} and offering the interface.


Features of Operating System
The principle capabilities of an operating system are as follows :
1. Process Management A process is an application or a program in operating state. Process management is the vital a part of an working system  which permits the actions of planning, monitoring and efficiency of a CPU.
2. Memory Management As a memory manager, the operating system handles the allocation and deallocation of reminiscence area as required by numerous packages. Managing the first
memory, sharing and minimising memory access time are the basic objectives of the reminiscence administration.
3. File Management The working system is responsible for creation and deletion of recordsdata and directories. It additionally takes care of different file associated actions reminiscent of organising, storing, retrieving,naming and defending the recordsdata.
4. Input/Output Management The enter/output administration module of an working system coordinates and assigns completely different enter and output gadgets. It controls all enter/output gadgets, retains observe of enter/output requests, points instructions to those gadgets.

5. Security Management The working system protects system assets and data in opposition to destruction and unauthorised use, it retains completely different packages and knowledge in such a way that they don’t interface with one another.


Types of Operating System

Time Sharing Operating System
On this OS, a small period of time is allotted for the processing concurrently.
● It offers scheduling to every course of to be run on.
e.g. Mac OS

Actual-Time Operating System
● It was designed to reply to an occasion inside a predetermined time.
● It goals to execute actual time functions reminiscent of auto pilot mechanism utilized in aircrafts.
● It has little or no user-interface functionality and no end-user utilities.
e.g. Home windows CE, QNX, RTLINUX, Vx Works, Free RTOS, and many others.

Single-Consumer Operating System
It’s designed for one person to successfully use a pc at a time.
e.g. Home windows 95/NT/2000, DOS, and many others.

Multi-Consumer Operating System
● It permits many customers to benefit from the pc’s assets concurrently.
● It ensures that drawback with one person doesn’t have an effect on all the neighborhood of customers.
e.g. Unix, VMS, Linux, Home windows 2000, and many others.

Single-Tasking Working System
● It permits solely a single program to run at a time.
e.g. Palm OS, and many others.

Multi-Programming Working System
● It permits to run a number of packages at a time utilizing time sharing.
● This working system retains a number of jobs in reminiscence at a time.
e.g. Linux, Unix, and many others.

Multi-Tasking Working System
● This working system is the logical extension of multi-programming working system.
On this OS, multiple processes might be executed concurrently.
● It reduces CPU idle time.
e.g. Microsoft’s Home windows and Apple’s Mac OS.

Distributed Working System
● It makes use of a number of central processors to serve a number of actual time functions.
● It manages a gaggle of impartial computer systems and makes them seem to a single laptop.
Knowledge processing jobs are distributed among the many processors in line with their effectivity.
e.g. LOCUS and many others.

Batch-Processing Working System
Comparable forms of jobs are grouped underneath batch and these batches are executed with out
person’s interruption.
● Jobs are processed within the order of submission, i.e. on First Come First Serve (FCFS) foundation.
e.g. DOS, IBM OS/2, and many others.

Multi-Processing Working System
● Use of two or extra CPUs inside a single laptop system.
● Simultaneous processing of two or extra packages by a number of processors.
e.g. Linux, Unix, Home windows 2000, and many others.


Working Programs for Desktop and Laptop computer

Some generally used working techniques for desktop and laptop computer are as follows :
It’s an working system which was first developed within the 1969s. UNIX techniques have a Graphical Consumer Interface (GUI) just like completely different Microsoft Home windows which offers a simple approach to make use of platform. It helps absolutely multi-tasking with protected reminiscence which implies a number of customers can run a number of packages on the similar time with out interfering with one another or crashing the system. UNIX was one of many first working system to be written in a excessive degree programming language, particularly C.This meant that it may very well be put in on nearly any laptop for which a C compiler existed. This pure portability
mixed with its low worth made it a preferred alternative amongst universities.

2. Linux
It’s an open supply working system designed primarily for the PCs and laptops.Linux was designed contemplating Unix compatibility. Its performance checklist is kind of just like that of Unix. Some of the
valued benefit of Linux over the opposite platforms lies with the excessive safety ranges. It’s a virus free working system.


3. Mac OS (Apple Macintosh)
It’s an working system which was launched on March 24, 2001 by Apple Inc and was initially named as system software program,which was later renamed as Mac OS. Most up-to-date model of OS is predicated on Unix
as a result of it has graphical interface.So, it’s each steady (doesn’t crash usually or has as many software program issues as different techniques might have) and simple to study.One disadvantage of this method is that it
can solely be run on Apple produced merchandise.

4. MS-Home windows
It’s a sequence of Graphical Consumer Interface (GUI) working techniques developed, marketed and bought by Microsoft. Microsoft launched an working atmosphere named Home windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the rising curiosity in Graphical Consumer Interfaces (GUIs).The preferred variations of Home windows for private computer systems, cell gadgets and server computer systems are as follows :


I. Home windows NT (New Expertise) The primary model of Home windows NT was Home windows NT 3.1 launched in July 27,1993 by Microsoft. It’s a processor impartial, multi-processing,multi-user working system.

II. Home windows 95 It was developed in August, 1995 by Microsoft. It’s an working system primarily based on client oriented software. Though, it may run older Home windows and DOS functions. It has basically eliminated DOS as a underlying platform.

III. Home windows 98 It was launched in 1998 by Microsoft. It was produced in two major variations, i.e. the primary model was plagued with programming errors however the second version (which got here out later) was significantly better with many errors resolved.IV. Home windows 2000 It was launched in February, 2000 by Microsoft. A greater model of the Home windows NT OS, that works properly each at dwelling and as a workstation in a enterprise.

V. Home windows ME (Millennium Version) It was launched in September, 2000 by Microsoft. An upgraded model of Home windows 98 however it has been traditionally plagued with programming errors,which can be irritating for dwelling customers. It consists of Web Explorer 5.5,Home windows Media Participant 7.

VI. Home windows XP (eXPerience) It was launched in October 25, 2001 by Microsoft. It’s an OS produced for
private computer systems. Two variations of Home windows XP are Home windows XP Residence Version and Home windows XP Skilled Version.

VII. Home windows Vista It was launched in January, 2007 by Microsoft. It presents an development in reliability , safety,ease of deployment, efficiency and manageability over Home windows XP.VIII. Home windows 7 It was launched in July 22,2009 by Microsoft. It’s an improve of Home windows XP and Vista. It doesn’t
embody some customary functions like Home windows Film Maker, Home windows Mail,and many others. Now-a-days, it’s the mostly used working system.


IX. Home windows 8 It was launched in August 1, 2012 by Microsoft. It launched main modifications to the working system’s platform and person interface to enhance its person expertise on tablets,the place Home windows was now competing with Cellular OS, together with Android and iOS.

X. Home windows 10 It was launched to manufacturing in July, 2015 by Microsoft. It’s a private laptop
working system as part of the Home windows NT household of working techniques.


5. Solaris
It’s a free working system initially developed by Solar Microsystems in 1993.Oracle Solaris, as it’s now recognized and owned by Oracle Company since Oracle’s acquisitions of Solar in January 2010.Solaris is thought for its scalability, diminished value, protected investments in functions.It’s a customary working system with wonderful efficiency, system administration and community capabilities.


(Microsoft-Disk Working System) It’s an working system that runs on PC and developed by IBM company in 1981.It was essentially the most generally used member of the DOS household of working system.
Initially, MS-DOS was focused at Intel 8086 processors operating on laptop {hardware} utilizing floppy disks to retailer and entry not solely the working system, however software software program and person knowledge as properly.
Finally, it was the important thing product in Microsoft’s growth from a programming languages firm to a various software program growth agency,offering the corporate with important income and advertising and marketing assets. It’s a versatile working system and consumes negligible set up area.


Working Programs for Cellular Telephone and Tablets It’s an OS that operates on smartphones, tablets and digital cell gadgets. A cell OS controls a cell gadget and its design  helps wi-fi communication and several types of cell functions. It has built-in help for cell multimedia codecs.
The most typical working techniques for cell phone and tablets are as follows :
1. Android
It’s the preferred Linux primarily based open supply software program developed by Google in September, 2008.
It’s principally designed for contact display screen cell gadgets like tablets, smartphones, and many others.Now-a-days, it’s commonest OS utilized in cellphones.
2. iOS
It’s the in style cell working system developed by Apple Incorporation. iOS was launched in June 29, 2007 when the primary iPhone was developed. This working system is often utilized in Apple iPhone, iPod Contact, iPad, Second Era Apple TV, and many others.

3. BlackBerry
That is essentially the most safe working system utilized in main smartphones developed by BlackBerry firm. BlackBerry was launched in January 19, 1999. It additionally helps WAP 1.2.
4. Symbian
It was developed on fifth June, 1997 and bought by Symbian Ltd. It’s a cell OS focused at cellphones that provide a excessive degree of integration with communication and Private Info Administration (PIM) performance.Symbian is an open supply cell OS designed for good telephones. It has been utilized by many main handset producers together with Motorola, Nokia, Samsung, Sony, and many others.

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